About Termite Control Effectiveness

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Termites are far less likely to be assaulted by fleas than bees, wasps and ants, since they're generally well protected in their own mounds.122 Nevertheless, termites are infected by many different parasites. Some of these include dipteran flies,123 Pyemotes mites, and also a high number of nematode parasites. Most nematode parasites are in the order Rhabditida; many others are in the genus Mermis, Diplogaster aerivora and Harteria gallinarum.

M. anispliae is known to weaken the termite immune system. Infection with A. nomius only takes place when a colony is under great anxiety. .

Termites are infected by viruses including Entomopoxvirinae and the Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus.130131



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Because the employee and soldier castes lack wings and so never fly, and the reproductives use their wings for only a brief amount of time, termites predominantly rely upon their own legs to move around.



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Foraging behaviour depends on the type of termite. By way of example, certain species feed on the timber constructions they inhabit, and others harvest food that's near the nest.132 Most employees are rarely found out in the open, and do not forage unprotected; they rely on sheeting and runways to protect them from predators.

When they find a food sourcethey communicate with other soldiers and a tiny force of employees starts to emerge. In the second stage, employees appear in large numbers at the site. The third phase is marked by a drop in the number of soldiers present and an increase in the number of employees.136 Isolated researchers may engage in Lvy flight behavior as an optimised way for finding their nestmates or foraging for food.137.

Competition between two colonies always ends in agonistic behaviour towards each other, resulting in struggles. These struggles can lead to mortality on both sides and, in some cases, the gain or reduction of land.138139"Cemetery pits" may be present, where the bodies of dead termites are buried.140



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Studies indicate that when termites encounter each other in foraging areas, some of the termites deliberately block passages to prevent other termites from entering.134141 Dead termites from different colonies found in exploratory tunnels contributes to the isolation of the area and thus the need to construct new tunnels.142 Conflict between two competitors does not always occur.

Since C. formosanus colonies can get into physical conflict, a few termites squeeze closely into foraging tunnels and die, effectively blocking the tunnel and ending all of agonistic activities.144.

Among the reproductive caste, neotenic queens may compete with one another to become the dominant queen when there are no primary reproductives. This battle among the queens contributes to the elimination of all but a single queen, which, with all the king, takes over the colony.145



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Ants and termites can compete with each more tips here other for nesting space. In particular, ants that prey on termites usually have a negative impact on arboreal nesting species.146

Most termites are blind, so communication primarily occurs through chemical, mechanical and pheromonal cues.41134 These means of communication are employed in a variety of activities, including foraging, locating reproductives, construction of nests, recognition of nestmates, nuptial flight, and locating and fighting enemies, and defending the nests.41134 The most common way of communicating is through antennation.134 A number of pheromones are known, including contact pheromones (that can be transmitted when employees are engaged in trophallaxis or grooming) and alert, trail and sex pheromones.

Trail pheromones are secreted in the sternal gland, and gender pheromones derive from two glandular resources: the sternal and tergal glands.41 When termites head out to look for food, they forage in columns along the ground throughout vegetation. A trail can be identified from the faecal deposits or runways which are covered by objects.

When termites construct their nests, they utilize predominantly indirect communication. No single termite are in charge of any particular construction project. Individual termites respond rather than think, but at a set level, they display a sort of collective cognition. Particular structures or other items like pellets of soil or pillars cause termites to begin building.



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The outcome is a self-organised process whereby the information that directs termite activity results in changes in the environment rather than from direct contact among individuals.134.

Termites can distinguish nestmates and non-nestmates through compound communication and gut symbionts: chemicals consisting of hydrocarbons released from the cuticle allow the recognition of alien species.148149 Each colony has its own distinct odour. This odour is Due to genetic and environmental factors like the termites' diet andThe composition of these bacteria within the termites' intestines.150.

Termites rely on alert communication to defend a colony.134 Alarm pheromones can be discharged when the nest has been breached or is being attacked by enemies or potential pathogens. Termites always avoid nestmates infected with Metarhizium anisopliae spores, through vibrational signals released by infected nestmates.151 Other methods of defence include intense jerking and secretion of fluids from the frontal gland and defecating faeces containing alarm pheromones.134152.

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