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Termites are far not as likely to be attacked by parasites than bees, wasps and ants, since they're generally well protected in their own mounds.122 Nevertheless, termites are infected by many different parasites. Some of these include dipteran flies,123 Pyemotes mites, and a large number of nematode parasites. Many nematode parasites are in the order Rhabditida; others are in the genus Mermis, Diplogaster aerivora and Harteria gallinarum.

M. anispliae is known to weaken the termite immune system. Infection with A. nomius only occurs when a colony is under great anxiety. .

Termites are infected by viruses including Entomopoxvirinae and the Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus.130131

 

 

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Since the employee and soldier castes lack wings and so never flyand also the reproductives use their wings for just a brief amount of time, termites predominantly rely upon their own legs to move about.

 

 

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Foraging behavior depends on the form of termite. For example, certain species feed on the wood structures that they inhabit, and many others harvest food that's near the nest.132 Most workers are seldom found out in the open, and do not forage unprotected; they rely on sheeting and runways to protect them from predators.

When they find a food source, they communicate with other soldiers and a tiny force of employees starts to emerge. In the second phase, employees appear in large numbers at the website. The third stage is marked by a drop in the number of soldiers present and an increase in the number of workers.136 Isolated researchers may engage in Lvy flight behaviour within an optimised strategy for finding their nestmates or foraging for food.137.

Competition between two colonies always results in agonistic behaviour towards one another, resulting in fights. These fights can lead to mortality on both sides and, in some situations, the gain or reduction of territory.138139"Cemetery pits" may be present, where the bodies of dead termites are buried.140

 

 

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Studies indicate that when termites encounter each other in foraging areas, a few of the termites intentionally block passages to prevent other termites from entering.134141 Dead termites from different colonies found in exploratory tunnels contributes to the isolation of the region and so the need to construct new tunnels.142 Conflict between two competitors does not always happen.

Since C. formosanus colonies can get into physical conflict, some termites squeeze tightly into foraging tunnels and die, successfully blocking the tunnel and ending all of agonistic actions.144.

Among the reproductive caste, neotenic queens may compete with one another to be the dominant queen when there are no primary reproductives. This battle among the queens leads to the elimination of all but a single queen, which, together with all the king, accepts over the colony.145

 

 

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Ants and termites can compete with each other for nesting space. In particular, ants that prey on termites usually have a negative impact on arboreal nesting species.146

Most termites are blind, therefore communication primarily occurs through chemical, mechanical and pheromonal cues.41134 These means of communication are used in an assortment of activities, including foraging, locating reproductives, construction of nests, recognition of nestmates, nuptial flight, and locating and fighting enemies, and defending the nests.41134 The most common way of communicating is through antennation.134 A number of pheromones are known, including contact pheromones (which can be transmitted when workers are engaged in trophallaxis or grooming) and alert, trail and sex pheromones.

Trail pheromones are secreted in the sternal gland, and gender pheromones derive from two glandular sources: the sternal and tergal glands.41 When termites go out to look for food, they forage in columns along the ground throughout vegetation. A path can be identified from the faecal deposits or runways which are covered by items.

When termites construct their nests, they use predominantly indirect communication. No single termite would be in charge of any specific construction project. Individual termites react rather than think, but at a group level, they display a sort of collective cognition. Particular structures or other objects like pellets of columns or soil cause termites to begin building.

 

 

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The result is a self-organised procedure whereby the information that sends termite activity results in changes in the environment rather than from direct contact among individuals.134.

Termites can distinguish nestmates and non-nestmates through compound communication and gut symbionts: compounds consisting of hydrocarbons released from the cuticle allow the recognition Discover More of alien termite species.148149 Every colony has its own distinct odour. This odour is Due to genetic and environmental factors such as the termites' diet andThe composition of the bacteria within the termites' intestines.150.

Termites rely on alert communication to defend a colony.134 Alarm pheromones can be discharged when the nest has been breached or is being attacked by enemies or potential pathogens. Termites always avoid nestmates infected with Metarhizium anisopliae spores, through vibrational signals released by infected nestmates.151 Additional procedures of defence include intense jerking and secretion of fluids in the frontal gland and defecating faeces containing alarm pheromones.134152.

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