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Termites are less likely to be assaulted by fleas than bees, wasps and ants, as they are usually well protected in their mounds.122 Nevertheless, termites are infected by many different parasites. Some of these include dipteran flies,123 Pyemotes mites, and also a large number of nematode parasites. Many nematode parasites are in the order Rhabditida; others are in the genus Mermis, Diplogaster aerivora and Harteria gallinarum.

M. anispliae is known to weaken the termite immune system. Infection with A. nomius only occurs when a colony is under great stress. .

Termites are infected by viruses including Entomopoxvirinae and the Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus.130131



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Since the worker and soldier castes lack wings and so never fly, and the reproductives use their wings for just a brief amount of time, termites predominantly rely upon their own legs to move about.



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Foraging behaviour depends on the form of termite. By way of example, certain species feed on the timber structures that they inhabit, and others harvest food that's near the nest.132 Most employees are rarely found out in the open, and do not forage unprotected; they rely on sheeting and runways to protect them from predators.

When they find a food sourcethey communicate to other soldiers and a tiny force of workers starts to emerge. In the second phase, employees appear in large numbers in the site. The next phase is indicated by a decrease in the number of soldiers present and an increase in the number of workers.136 Isolated researchers may engage in Lvy flight behavior as an optimised way for finding their nestmates or foraging for food.137.

Competition between two colonies always ends in agonistic behavior towards one another, resulting in struggles. These struggles can cause mortality on either side and, in some situations, the gain or loss of land.138139"Cemetery pits" could be present, in which the bodies of dead termites are buried.140



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Studies indicate that when termites encounter each other in foraging areas, a few of the termites intentionally block passages to prevent other termites from entering.134141 Dead termites from different colonies found in exploratory tunnels contributes to the isolation of the area and so the need to construct new tunnels.142 Conflict between two competitors does not necessarily happen.

Since C. formosanus colonies may get into physical conflict, a few termites squeeze closely into foraging tunnels and perish, successfully blocking the tunnel and ending all agonistic activities.144.

Among the reproductive caste, neotenic queens can compete with each other to become the Continue dominant queen when there are no primary reproductives. This battle among the queens this post contributes to the elimination of all but a single queen, which, together with all the king, takes over the colony.145



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Ants and termites may compete with each other for nesting space. In particular, ants that prey on termites usually have a negative impact on arboreal nesting species.146

Most termites are blind, so communication primarily occurs through chemical, mechanical and pheromonal cues.41134 These means of communication are used in a variety of tasks, including foraging, locating reproductives, construction of nests, recognition of nestmates, nuptial flight, and locating and fighting enemies, and defending the nests.41134 The most common way of communicating is through antennation.134 A number of pheromones are known, including contact pheromones (which can be transmitted when workers are engaged in trophallaxis or grooming) and alert, trail and sex pheromones.

Trail pheromones are secreted in the sternal gland, and sex pheromones derive from two glandular resources: the sternal and tergal glands.41 When termites go out to search for food, they forage in columns along the ground throughout vegetation. A trail can be identified from the faecal residue or runways which are covered by items.

When termites construct their neststhey utilize predominantly indirect communication. No single termite would be in charge of any particular construction job. Individual termites respond rather than think, however in a group level, they display a sort of collective cognition. Specific structures or other items such as pellets of soil or pillars cause termites to start building.



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The result is a self-organised procedure whereby the information that sends termite activity results from changes in the environment rather than from direct contact among individuals.134.

Termites can distinguish nestmates and non-nestmates through chemical communication and gut symbionts: chemicals consisting of hydrocarbons discharged from the cuticle permit the recognition of alien species.148149 Every colony has its own distinct odour. This odour is a result of genetic and environmental factors such as the termites' diet andThe composition of the bacteria within the termites' intestines.150.

Termites rely on alert communication to defend a colony.134 Alarm pheromones can be released when the nest has been breached or is being assaulted by enemies or potential innovative pest control pathogens. Termites always avoid nestmates infected with Metarhizium anisopliae spores, through vibrational signals released by infected nestmates.151 Additional procedures of defence include intense jerking and secretion of fluids from the frontal gland and defecating faeces containing alarm pheromones.134152.

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