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Termites are far less likely to be assaulted by fleas than bees, wasps and ants, as they are generally well protected in their own mounds.122 Nevertheless, termites are infected by many different parasites. Some of these include dipteran flies,123 Pyemotes mites, and also a high number of nematode parasites. Many nematode parasites are in the order Rhabditida; many others are in the genus Mermis, Diplogaster aerivora and Harteria gallinarum.

M. anispliae is known to weaken the termite immune system. Infection with A. nomius only occurs when a colony is under great anxiety. .

Termites are infected by viruses including Entomopoxvirinae and the Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus.130131



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Since the employee and soldier castes lack wings and so never fly, and also the reproductives use their wings for just a brief amount of time, termites predominantly rely upon their own legs to move around.



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Foraging behaviour depends on the form of termite. By way of example, certain species feed on the timber structures that they inhabit, and many others harvest food that is near the nest.132 Most employees are rarely found out in the open, and do not forage unprotected; they rely on sheeting and runways to protect them from predators.

When they find a food source, they communicate to other soldiers and a small force of employees starts to emerge. In the second stage, workers appear in large numbers in the site. The third stage is indicated by a decrease in the number of soldiers present and an increase in the number of employees.136 Isolated researchers may engage in Lvy flight behavior as an optimised strategy for finding their nestmates or foraging for food.137.

Competition between two colonies consistently results in agonistic behaviour towards each other, resulting in struggles. These fights can lead to mortality on both sides and, in some cases, the gain or loss of land.138139"Cemetery pits" could be present, where the bodies of dead termites are buried.140



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Studies indicate that when termites encounter each other in foraging areas, some of the termites deliberately block passages to prevent other termites from entering.134141 Dead termites from different colonies found in exploratory tunnels leads to the isolation of the region and so the need to construct new tunnels.142 Conflict between two competitors does not necessarily happen.

Since C. formosanus colonies click to visit innovative pest control may get into physical conflict, a few termites squeeze closely into foraging tunnels and die, successfully blocking the tunnel and ending all of agonistic activities.144.

Among the reproductive caste, neotenic queens may compete with one another to be the dominant queen when there are no primary reproductives. This struggle among the queens contributes to the elimination of all but a single queen, which, together with the king, takes over the colony.145



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Ants and termites may compete with each other for nesting space. In specific, ants that prey on termites normally have a negative impact on arboreal nesting species.146

Most termites are blind, so communication primarily occurs through chemical, mechanical and pheromonal cues.41134 These means of communication are used in an assortment of activities, including foraging, locating reproductives, construction of nests, recognition of nestmates, nuptial flight, and locating and fighting enemies, and defending the nests.41134 The most common way of communicating is through antennation.134 A number of pheromones are known, including contact pheromones (that are transmitted when employees are engaged in trophallaxis or grooming) and alert, trail and sex pheromones.

Route pheromones are secreted in the sternal gland, and sex pheromones derive from two glandular resources: the sternal and tergal glands.41 When termites go out to look for meals, they forage in columns along the ground through vegetation. A path can be identified by the faecal deposits or runways that are covered by objects.

When termites construct their nests, they utilize predominantly indirect communication. No single termite are in charge of any particular construction project. Individual termites react rather than think, but in a set level, they exhibit a type of collective cognition. Specific structures or other items like pellets of soil or pillars cause termites to start building.



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The outcome is a self-organised process whereby the information that sends termite activity results from changes in the environment rather than from direct contact among individuals.134.

Termites can distinguish nestmates and non-nestmates through compound communication and gut symbionts: chemicals consisting of hydrocarbons released from the cuticle permit the recognition of alien species.148149 Every colony has its own distinct odour. This odour is a result of genetic and environmental factors such as the termites' diet andThe composition of these bacteria within the termites' intestines.150.

Termites rely on alert communication to defend a colony.134 Alarm pheromones can be discharged when the nest has been breached or is being attacked by enemies or potential pathogens. Termites constantly avoid nestmates infected with Metarhizium anisopliae spores, through vibrational signals released by infected nestmates.151 Additional procedures of defence include intense jerking and secretion of fluids from the frontal gland and defecating faeces containing alarm pheromones.134152.

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